(1842-circa 1914) US journalist, poet and author of short stories and Satires, deeply affected by his experiences in the American Civil War (he was breveted major for bravery and wounded twice). Like Bret Harte, he went to California and became a journalist, and there published his first work of genre interest, "The Haunted Valley" for Overland Monthly in July 1871; also like Harte he soon went abroad, spending 1872-1876 in the UK, publishing several volumes of sketches as Dod Grile, most notably the savage little fables assembled primarily in Cobwebs from an Empty Skull (coll 1873 UK; vt Cobwebs: Being the Fables of Zambri, the Parsee, circa 1873); but afterwards – unlike Harte, who had permanently departed the thin cultural pickings there – he returned to California. At the end of 1913, after a hectic career and some notably intemperate journalism, he disappeared into Mexico, then in the middle of its own civil war. Travelling with the revolutionary army of Pancho Villa, he apparently became involved in the Battle of Ojinaga, 11 January 1914, which was savage. His corpse was probably among the many which were burned to prevent typhus. Gerald Kersh's "The Secret of the Bottle" (7 December 1957 Saturday Evening Post; vt "The Oxoxoco Bottle" December 1958 Argosy UK) speculates on how he may have died. His vanishing also intrigued other authors: Robert A Heinlein's "Lost Legacy" (November 1941 Super Science Stories as "Lost Legion" by Lyle Monroe; vt in Assignment in Eternity, coll 1953) and Avram Davidson's Masters of the Maze (1965) both feature Bierce as one of a hidden group of Secret Masters, and Mexican writer Carlos Fuentes fictionalized Bierce's disappearance in Gringo Viejo (1985; trans Margaret Sayers Peden as The Old Gringo 1985).
Bierce is perhaps best known for The Cynic's Word Book (coll 1906; vt The Devil's Dictionary 1911; exp vt The Enlarged Devil's Dictionary 1967), a collection of sometimes brilliantly and sometimes laboriously cynical mock-definitions of pretentiously or hypocritically used words whose influence as a model for Satire has been wide but subterranean, a good example being The Onion Book of Known Knowledge (anth 2012) by the editors of the Onion, many of whose dictionary definitions patently reflect the tone of (but do not acknowledge) their source. His numerous poems, sketches and stories far more closely approach the canons of Fantasy than of sf [the Checklist below is severely restricted], though, as with Mark Twain's similar efforts, the speculative environment they create is often sufficiently displaced to encourage the interest of sf readers, an example being "The Suitable Surroundings" (14 July 1889 San Francisco Examiner), about a story so deadly it kills those who read it (see Basilisks). Bierce's single most famous tale, "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge" (13 July 1890 San Francisco Examiner), in which a condemned spy believes he has escaped the rope and returned to his wife the instant after his fall from the bridge and before the noose tightens, appears in Tales of Soldiers and Civilians (coll 1891; vt In the Midst of Life 1892) with other work of interest; this volume, along with Can Such Things Be? (coll 1893) [for vts see Checklist], contains most of his sf of interest.
"Charles Ashmore's Trail" (14 October 1888 San Francisco Examiner with other stories as "Whither?: Some Strange Instances of Mysterious Disappearances") is the story of a man who vanishes, much as Bierce seemed to do himself, into another Dimension; and "The Damned Thing" (7 December 1893 Tales from New York Town Topics) is a notable story of monstrous Invisibility which offers a scientific explanation of the phenomenon. In the early Robot tale "Moxon's Master" (16 April 1899 San Francisco Examiner as "A Night at Moxon's"), Bierce's best known sf story, a Scientist's death is apparently caused by a chess-playing automaton; Other tales of sf interest include three examples of the Ruins and Futurity topos: "John Smith Liberator: (From a Newspaper of the Far Future)" (10 May 1873 Fun as "John Smith"); "For the Ahkoond" (18 March 1888 San Francisco Examiner), in which an explorer archaeologist visits ruined sites across the North America of 4591; and "The Ashes of the Beacon: An Historical Monograph Written in 4930" (19 February 1905 New York American), which is a radical revision of "The Fall of the Republic: An Article from a 'Court Journal' of the Thirty-First Century" (25 March 1888 San Francisco Examiner). All three, with other miscellaneous works were assembled in The Collected Works of Ambrose Bierce: Volume One (coll 1909).
The first forms of Can Such Things Be? (coll 1893) and Fantastic Fables (coll 1899) have since been republished in a number of forms, including somewhat scattered reassembly in various volumes of The Collected Works of Ambrose Bierce (1909-1912 12 vols). The Collected Writings of Ambrose Bierce (coll 1946) is valuable, though not complete; Ghost and Horror Stories of Ambrose Bierce (coll 1964, ed Everett F Bleiler) is probably the best single assemblage of his works of interest to the reader of sf or fantasy, though The Devil's Dictionary, Tales, and Memoirs (coll 2011) edited by S T Joshi is significantly more comprehensive. [JC/PN]
see also: Gothic SF; Horror in SF; Humour; Paranoia.
Ambrose Gwinnett Bierce
born Ohio: 24 June 1842
died Ojinaga, Mexico: 11 January 1914 [location and date are speculative]
individual titles (selected)
- The Fiend's Delight (London: John Camden Hotten, 1873) as by Dod Grile [coll: hb/]
- Nuggets and Dust Panned Out in California (London: Chatto and Windus, 1873) as by Dod Grile [coll: pb/]
- Cobwebs from an Empty Skull (London: George Routledge and Sons, 1873) as by Dod Grile [coll: book is dated 1874: illus/hb/The Dalziel Brothers]
- The Dance of Death (San Francisco, California: no publisher given, 1877) as by William Herman [coll: extent of Bierce's contribution to volume not determined, but considerable: hb/]
- The Dance of Death (San Francisco, California: Henry Keller and Co, 1877) as by William Herman [coll: exp of the above: extent of Bierce's contribution to volume not determined, but considerable: hb/]
- Tales of Soldiers and Civilians (San Francisco, California: E L G Steele, 1891) [coll: hb/]
- Black Beetles in Amber (San Francisco, California: Western Author's Publishing Company, 1892) [poetry: coll: hb/]
- Can Such Things Be? (New York: Cassell, 1893) [coll: hb/]
- Fantastic Fables (New York: G P Putnam's Sons, 1899) [coll: hb/uncredited]
- Shapes of Clay (San Francisco, California: W E Wood, Publisher, 1904) [poetry: coll: hb/uncredited]
- The Cynic's Word Book (New York: Doubleday, Page, 1906) [coll: hb/]
- The Collected Works of Ambrose Bierce: Volume One (New York: The Neale Publishing Company, 1909) [coll: first of twelve volumes: this volume containing previously uncollected short fiction: Collected Works: hb/nonpictorial]
- The Complete Short Stories of Ambrose Bierce: Ninety-Three Tales of War, Horror, and the Absurd (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1970) [coll: various partial versions of this coll are not listed: edited by Ernest Jerome Hopkins: hb/]
- A Vision of Doom: Poems by Ambrose Bierce (West Kingston, Rhode Island: Donald M Grant, 1980) [poetry: coll: edited by Donald Sydney-Fryer: hb/Frank Villano]
- The Fall of the Republic and Other Political Satires (Knoxville, Tennessee: The University of Tennessee Press, 2000) [coll: edited by S T Joshi and David E Schultz: hb/nonpictorial]
- The Devil's Dictionary, Tales, and Memoirs (New York: The Library of America, 2011) [omni/coll: edited by S T Joshi: hb/]
about the author
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