This term is in no sense a synonym for Pocket Universe, a literary term which describes a particular kind of story; nor is it here used in its cosmological sense. A closed universe is a work or series whose characters and venues remain strictly under its author's control, and which is not open to fans or others to make uncopyrighted use of in Fanzines. In this sense, a Shared-World enterprise may still be a closed universe, if its owners restrict its use to other professionals on a contractual basis – indeed, most are. It should perhaps be assumed by sf readers that any work of art is a closed universe unless otherwise signposted. [JC]
see also: Open Universe.
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