(1940- ) Canadian sf critic and author, in the UK from 1969; married to Judith Clute from 1964. He has been the partner of Elizabeth Hand since 1996. His first professional publication, a long sf-tinged poem called "Carcajou Lament", appeared in Triquarterly for Winter 1960 (i.e. Autumn 1959), though he only began publishing sf proper with "A Man Must Die" in New Worlds for November 1966, where much of his earlier criticism also appeared. This criticism, despite some studiously flamboyant obscurities, remains essentially practical, and has appeared mostly in the form of reviews, early forms of many of which were first published in The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, Foundation, Washington Post, Omni, Times Literary Supplement, New York Times, New York Review of Science Fiction, Interzone, Los Angeles Times, Observer, Science Fiction Weekly (see Online Magazines), the Independent, Strange Horizons and elsewhere. He has written two regular review columns: Excessive Candour for Science Fiction Weekly between 1997 and 2009; and Scores, intermittently in The Infinite Matrix 2001-2003, regularly in Interzone between 2005 and 2008, and in Strange Horizons from 2010. Selections from this work, almost always revised, have been assembled in Strokes: Essays and Reviews 1966-1986 (coll 1988), Look at the Evidence: Essays and Reviews (coll dated 1995 but 1996), Scores: Reviews 1993-2003 (coll 2003), Canary Fever: Reviews (coll 2009) and Stay (coll 2014).
An ongoing project to construct models of story "moves" in the literatures of the fantastic is represented by a set of connected motif entries for fantasy in The Encyclopedia of Fantasy (1997) with John Grant [see The Encyclopedia of Fantasy under links below] and for horror in The Darkening Garden: A Short Lexicon of Horror (2006), as well as in Fustian (2006 chap) with Jason Van Hollander, a long interview focused on these issues. In later essays – like "Fantastika in the World Storm" (address given 20 September 2007, Prague; Spring 2008 Foundation) and "Physics for Amnesia" (October 2008 The New York Review of Science Fiction), both assembled in revised form with other essays as Pardon This Intrusion: Fantastika in the World Storm (coll 2011) – he has suggested that a central task for Fantastika in the twenty-first century is to dissolve the cultural Amnesia that has arguably consumed the Western world and the planet as a whole since World War Two (see Horror in SF; Postmodernism and SF). Primarily for his critical work, he received a Pilgrim Award in 1994, the IAFA Award as Distinguished Guest Scholar in 1999, and a Solstice Award (see SFWA Grand Master Award) in 2012.
In 1960 Clute was Associate Editor of and chief reviewer for Collage, an ill fated Chicago-based Slick magazine which in its two issues did manage to publish early work by Harlan Ellison and R A Lafferty. He served as Reviews Editor of Foundation 1980-1990, and was one of eight founders of Interzone in 1982; he remained Advisory Editor of that magazine until 2004, and then contributed the column mentioned above. He was the Associate Editor of the first edition of The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction: An Illustrated A to Z (1979; vt The Science Fiction Encyclopedia 1979), which won a Hugo award, and was co-editor of the much-expanded second edition The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction (1993; rev 1995; further rev vt Grolier Science Fiction: The Multimedia Encyclopedia of Science Fiction 1995 CD-ROM; further rev 1999), for which he shared the 1994 Hugo and Locus Award for nonfiction with Peter Nicholls. Though Clute and Nicholls were listed as editors, the book was in fact written mostly by them and Associate Editor Brian Stableford. The current third edition, again much expanded as The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction (online from 2011) edited by John Clute and David Langford with Peter Nicholls serving as Editor Emeritus and Graham Sleight as Managing Editor, has similarly been written in the main by its editors and Contributing Editors; it won a Hugo as Best Related Work in 2012. Science Fiction: The Illustrated Encyclopedia (1995), which he wrote solo and for which he also received a Hugo in 1996, is a companion to sf, not in any way connected to the encyclopedias listed above. The Encyclopedia of Fantasy (1997) with John Grant, for which both editors shared a 1998 Hugo, deals with fantasy within a frame broadly compatible with that governing this Encyclopedia, which is its elder sibling.
Over his career, Clute has published several sf stories and two novels: The Disinheriting Party (in New Worlds Quarterly 5, anth 1973, ed Michael Moorcock; exp 1977), which is Equipoisal with the fantastic, but demurs into rationalizations at the end; and Appleseed (2001), a Space Opera with an anti-Religion bias. The Made Minds (AIs) who dominate much of the action manifest themselves throughout as Avatars,allied to a Forerunner mentor, in support of all surviving humans, who are segregated from other species because of the overpowering sexual odour they emit (see Sex). As they are genetically deaf to god (see Communications; Gods and Demons), this galaxy-wide diaspora of Homo sapiens has been gathered into a Pariah Elite destined to become central combatants in the coming universal War against the Entropy-generating deity, as proclaimed for the first time in the book's Slingshot Ending. [JC]
see also: Canada; Collections; Critical and Historical Works About SF; Definitions of SF; Eaton Award; First Fandom Hall of Fame; History of SF; Music; Sense of Wonder; Worldcon.
John Frederick Clute
born Toronto, Ontario: 12 September 1940
Encyclopedia of Science Fiction
The three editions of The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction below are listed as separate titles.
- Strokes: Essays and Reviews 1966-1986 (Seattle, Washington: Serconia Press, 1988) [nonfiction: coll: introduction by Thomas M Disch: hb/Donald M Keller]
- Look at the Evidence: Essays and Reviews (New York: Serconia Press, 1996) [nonfiction: coll: book is dated 1995: hb/Judith Clute]
- The Book of End Times: Grappling with the Millennium (New York: HarperPrism, 1999) [nonfiction: tie to the Television series universe: Millennium: hb/Hotfoot]
- Scores: Reviews 1993-2003 (Harold Wood, Essex: Beccon Publications, 2003) [nonfiction: coll: hb/Judith Clute]
- The Darkening Garden: A Short Lexicon of Horror (Seattle, Washington: Payseur and Schmidt, 2006) [nonfiction: illus/various artists: hb/Jason Van Hollander]
- Fustian (Merion Station, Pennsylvania: Magic Pen Studio, 2006) with Jason Van Hollander [nonfiction: chap: interview: pb/Jason Van Hollander]
- Canary Fever: Reviews (Harold Wood, Essex: Beccon Publications, 2009) [nonfiction: coll: hb/Judith Clute]
- Pardon This Intrusion: Fantastika in the World Storm (Harold Wood, Essex: Beccon Publications, 2011) [nonfiction: coll: pb/Judith Clute]
- Stay (Harold Wood, Essex: Beccon Publications, 2014) [nonfiction: coll: includes some fiction and contains The Darkening Garden above: pb/Judith Clute]
works as editor
individual titles as editor
about the author
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