In the eighteenth century, tales tracing the circulation of an object from its original manufacture or discovery through various owners in various walks of life were not uncommon. A cumulative vision of life in contrasting regions of the world was normally achieved, often serving as a natural engine for Satire, with this category of tale normally focusing on the figures and scenes encountered, not the object in transit. The only example of real Proto SF interest may be Tobias Smollett's The History and Adventures of an Atom (1769 2vols), where the eponymous object, a Democritian atom, is in fact animate.
After the eighteenth century, the Tale of Circulation became less common, and was more likely to focus on conscious travellers whose travails were likely to be extreme, though a film like The Yellow Rolls Royce (1964) directed by Anthony Asquith, or John Hersey's Antonietta (1991), or Don DeLillo's Underworld (1997), continued to focus on the vistas uncovered rather than the object in transit. Children's stories, on the other hand, are far more likely to focus on the object – typically a bird or a doll – as protagonist, and incorporate elements of the picaresque implications of the Fantastic Voyage. Examples include Mrs Rouquette's Our Polly: The Adventures of a Parrot During her Life of 100 Years (1898), Roverandom (written 1926; 1998) by J R R Tolkien, Hitty: Her First Hundred Years (1929) by Rachel Field (1894-1942), The Ghost of Opalina; or, Nine Lives (1967) by Peggy Bacon (1895-1987), Russell Hoban's The Mouse and his Child (1967), the film Paulie (1998) directed by John Roberts, and The Miraculous Journey of Edward Tulane (2006) by Kate DiCamillo (1964- ).
The estrangements and reunions typical of the Tale of Circulation may also be seen as analogous to the narrative disruptions and exemplary returns of the sf Fixup, though one essential distinction – over and above that between sf and children's fantasy – differentiates these modes. The fixup almost invariably traces the odysseys through time and place of a human protagonist; the Tale of Circulation does not necessarily do so. Significantly peripatetic Space Opera sequences, like E C Tubb's Dumarest series, derive some of their power from a contrast between changing worlds and an unchanging hero (see also Archipelago; see again Fantastic Voyage). Weary travellers or immortals (see Immortality; Superman) who have seen too much can express a sense that Circulation can pall, a danger very intensely and metaphysically pondered in Robert Silverberg's "Schwartz Between the Galaxies" (in Stellar 1, anth 1974, ed Judy-Lynn del Rey) . On the other hand, tales of Reincarnation, which may also seem analogous, rarely evoke much sense of uncanny illumination through new vistas, being normally preoccupied with redemption, revenge and/or Transcendence. [JC]
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