Asimov, Isaac

Tagged: Author | Editor

(1920-1992) Russian-born US writer, the original form of whose name was Isaak Iudich Azimov, but who was brought to America with his family in 1923, and became a US citizen in 1928; his second marriage, in 1973, was to fellow writer J O Jeppson (who now signs herself Janet Asimov). He discovered sf through the magazines sold in his father's candy store; and, although he was not strongly involved in sf Fandom, he was for a while associated with the Futurians, one of whose members, Frederik Pohl, later published several of Asimov's early stories in his magazines Astonishing Stories and Super Science Stories, and with whom Asimov collaborated on one of his very last works, the timely nonfiction polemic Our Angry Earth (1991). Intellectually precocious, Asimov obtained his undergraduate degree from Columbia University in 1939, majoring in chemistry, and proceeded to take his MA in 1941 and PhD in 1948, after a wartime hiatus which he mostly spent working in the US Naval Air Experimental Station alongside L Sprague de Camp and Robert A Heinlein. In 1949 he joined the Boston University School of Medicine, where he became associate professor of biochemistry, a position he resigned in 1958 (he retained the title, though he never taught again) in order to write full-time. Asimov's fame as an sf writer grew steadily from 1940, and next to Heinlein (who dominated the field from 1940) he was the most influential US sf writer of his era. For his work overall he was given the SFWA Grand Master Award in 1987, and was inducted into the Science Fiction Hall of Fame in 1997. His life story is told in three volumes of memoirs – In Memory Yet Green: The Autobiography of Isaac Asimov (1920-1954) (1979), In Joy Still Felt: The Autobiography of Isaac Asimov (1954-1978) (1980) and I. Asimov: A Memoir (1994) – plus a volume of anecdotes, Asimov Laughs Again (1992) and the posthumous It's Been a Good Life: Isaac Asimov (coll 2002), a selection of his letters edited by Janet Jeppson Asimov, the five together comprising the most extensive autobiographical record yet supplied by any sf figure.

Asimov began publishing sf with "Marooned off Vesta" for Amazing Stories in March 1939, and, although his first stories did not attract the immediate attention accorded to contemporaries like Heinlein and A E van Vogt, he very soon developed a strong relationship with John W Campbell Jr, editor of Astounding Science-Fiction, who encouraged him, advised him, and eventually began to publish him. It was an astonishingly fruitful tutelage, as the comments woven into The Early Asimov, or Eleven Years of Trying (coll 1972; vt 2vols The Early Asimov, Book One 1974 and Book Two 1974; vt 3vols The Early Asimov, or Eleven Years of Trying #1 1973 UK, #2 1974 UK and #3 1974) exhaustively demonstrate. The apprenticeship was, in fact, short. By 1942 the young Asimov, barely out of his teens, had already written or had clearly embarked upon the three works or sequences with which his name would be most associated for the following half century: first, "Strange Playfellow" (September 1940 Super Science Stories; vt "Robbie" in I, Robot, coll 1950, and all later appearances), the first story in the Robot series, for the benefit of which the Laws of Robotics were soon articulated; second, "Nightfall" (September 1941 Astounding), his most famous story and probably the single most famous US sf story of all time; and, third, "Foundation" (May 1942 Astounding), the first instalment of the celebrated Foundation series, during the course of which Asimov rescued the concept of the Galactic Empire from Planetary Romance and Space Opera, making it into a default initial setting or template for almost every future History generated in the field from 1940 onwards.

As the Robot and Foundation sequences dominated Asimov's career until his death, it is perhaps best to describe "Nightfall" first. Its success has been astonishing. Poll after poll, including one conducted by the Science Fiction Writers of America, has voted it the best sf short story of all time. The original idea – as was often the case in the 1940s Golden Age of SF – was largely Campbell's. Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) had said that "If the stars should appear one night in a thousand years, how men would believe and adore"; but Campbell suggested to Asimov that something else might happen. "Nightfall" is set upon a world which complexly orbits six suns, at least one of which is always visible and therefore giving light, except for one night of universal eclipse, which occurs once every two thousand years. As night approaches once again, scientists and others begin to sense that the psychological effects (> Psychology) of utter darkness may explain the fact that civilization on this world is cyclical, and that every 2000 years the race must start again from scratch. Darkness falls, which causes great stress. But it is not darkness itself that finally deranges everyone, but what the darkness reveals: thousands upon thousands of suddenly and overwhelmingly visible stars. A novel version, Nightfall (1990) with Robert Silverberg, opens out the original story but in so doing fatally flattens the poetic intensity and Sense of Wonder felt by so many readers at the moment when the stars are seen.

It was the third story of the Robot series, "Liar!" (May 1941 Astounding), that saw the introduction of the Three Laws of Robotics, whose formulation Asimov credited essentially to Campbell, but which Campbell credited essentially to Asimov. (For more on the Laws, and for the full text, > Robots; Laws of Robotics.) That the constraints engendered by these laws were matters of jurisprudence rather than scientific principle could have been no secret to Asimov, who almost certainly promulgated them for reasons that had little to do with science. In the first instance, the Laws helped put paid to the increasingly worn-out Pulp-magazine convention that the robot was an inimical metal Monster; they allowed Asimov to argue a plausible alternative for the 1940s with his creation of Positronic Robots; and the Laws generated a large number of stories in which – in lawyerly fashion – various loopholes might be probed and exploited. The early stories in the sequence tend, as a consequence, to treat the history of the robot as a series of conundrums to be solved; these early tales were assembled as I, Robot (coll of linked stories 1950), a title which included "Liar!" and Little Lost Robot (March 1947 Astounding; rev 1977 chap). In his two robot novels of the 1950s – The Caves of Steel (October-December 1953 Galaxy; 1954), set in a vast, mechanized New York, and The Naked Sun (October-December 1956 Astounding; 1957) – Asimov definitively articulated the problem-solving nature of the series, creating in the human detective Lije Baley and his robot colleague R Daneel Olivaw two characters far more memorable than usually found in his work. The two novels – along with The End of Eternity (see below) his best of the 1950s – depict a future in which the crowded inhabitants of Earth have moved Underground (> Overpopulation) while their cultural descendants and rivals, the Spacers, glory in a galaxy of naked suns. The conflict between the two contrasting versions of humanity's proper course forward – by no means always in favour of the expansive but caste-ridden, superstitious Spacers (Asimov's own agoraphobia affects his fiction from "Nightfall" on) – would fuel the Robot novels (see below) of Asimov's second career as a fiction writer. His first career came near to its close with the Baley/Olivaw books, which were assembled in The Rest of the Robots (omni 1964), along with some hitherto uncollected stories, these latter being separately republished as Eight Stories from the Rest of the Robots (coll 1966) [see Checklist for further permutations].

Some of these robot stories were adapted for the BBC television series Out of the Unknown. Although Harlan Ellison wrote a screenplay for I, Robot in 1978 – eventually published as I, Robot: The Illustrated Screenplay (1994) – the film I, Robot (2004) is unrelated to this script and connected only distantly to Asimov's stories.

The Foundation tales were from the first conceived on a different scale, and were set sufficiently far into the future so that Asimov need experience none of the difficulties of verisimilitude he faced in the Robot sequence, where his plumping for a robot-dominated Near Future came to seem dangerously parochial as Computers increasingly came into actual being, and as the distributed networks and cloud computing characteristic of the twenty-first-century information explosion threatened to relegate the self-guiding, philosophical-rule-obeying (or defying) ambulatory robot to juvenile literature and movies. The first Foundation sequence, set thousands of years hence in the closing centuries of a vast Galactic Empire, comprises Foundation (May 1942-October 1944 Astounding; fixup 1951; cut vt The 1,000 Year Plan 1955 dos), Foundation and Empire (April and November-December 1945 Astounding; fixup 1952; vt The Man Who Upset the Universe 1955) and Second Foundation (January 1948 and November 1949-January 1950 Astounding; fixup 1953; vt 2nd Foundation: Galactic Empire 1958), with all three volumes being assembled as The Foundation Trilogy: Three Classics of Science Fiction (1963; vt An Isaac Asimov Omnibus 1966). Deriving background elements from an earlier story, "Black Friar of the Flame" (Spring 1942 Planet Stories), the series was originally conceived by Asimov as a single extended series of tales, each of them reflecting significant points in the fall of the Roman Empire, rewritten as sf. The earliest stories are chary of excess ambition; but very soon the sequence evolved into the much weightier undertaking it had become by 1950 through consultation with Campbell, though his refusal to accept in Astounding the presence of Aliens superior to humanity was responsible for Asimov's decision not to introduce any aliens at all into his future history. Grand in conception – the second volume in particular achieves an epic sweep, and even the somewhat anti-climactic third volume continues to open windows – the first Foundation trilogy was an sf landmark, winning a Hugo for 1965 as "Best All-Time Series". Its overall shape is genuinely simple: like its Roman model, the Galactic Empire has entered its senescence and a Long Night impends; but the hidden protagonist of the series, Hari Seldon, inventor of the Imaginary Science of Psychohistory, has established two Foundations (implicitly modelled on the founding of the Christian Church, though Asimov, himself an atheist, never capitalizes on this tacit analogy) in order to shorten the period of interregnum between the inevitable fall and a new galactic order, from Seldon's predicted 30,000 years to a mere 1000. The first Foundation, which is public, is given the explicit task of responding creatively to the historic impulses predicted by psychohistory; the second Foundation, a hidden group of Secret Masters, copes with the unknown – which in Foundation and Empire is manifested by the Mule, a Mutant, the effect of whose Psi Powers on history Seldon could not have anticipated (though indeed, by creating the Second Foundation, he anticipated coping with something of the sort). The first trilogy closes open to the future.

Asimov's first three published novels – Pebble in the Sky (1950), The Stars, Like Dust (January-March 1951 Galaxy as "Tyrann"; 1951; cut vt The Rebellious Stars 1954 dos) and The Currents of Space (October-December 1952 Astounding; 1952), all three assembled as Triangle (omni 1961; vt A Second Isaac Asimov Omnibus 1969) – are set earlier in the Galactic Empire Future History of the Foundation stories, but have no direct connection with them. Pebble in the Sky, more melodramatic than most Asimov tales, is set in a Ruined Earth a millennium after a nuclear Holocaust; the protagonist, hurtled by a scientific Timeslip accident from contemporary America into this nightmare, must deal with a xenophobic plot to wipe out all non-Earth-dwelling humans across the galaxy. The Stars, Like Dust supplies an American answer to tyrannies anywhere in the galaxy: study the US Constitution. Though the first two are relatively minor, The Currents of Space is an effective standalone blend of mystery and adventure on a world where unspecified Disaster has been foretold by a highly specialist expert now lost to Amnesia. Before 1958, when he closed off his first career as a fiction writer, Asimov wrote only one genuine singleton (though even this is ultimately positioned as a prequel to the galactic-empire sequence), The End of Eternity (1955), a complex, thoughtful story of Time Travel, Time Paradoxes and Time Police, considered by some critics to be his best work. As Paul French, he produced the Lucky Starr Children's SF sequence beginning with David Starr, Space Ranger (1952; vt Space Ranger 1973), which is set on Mars, and ending with Lucky Starr and the Rings of Saturn (1958; vt The Rings of Saturn 1974) (> Outer Planets). The sequence was subsequently variously assembled [see Checklist below]. Paul French was Asimov's only regularly used Pseudonym, although he published two 1942 stories under one-off bylines: "Time Pussy" (April 1942 Astounding; in The Early Asimov, coll 1972, as by Asimov) as by George E Dale and "The Weapon" (May 1942 Super Science Stories) as by H B Ogden.

Most of the best of his short stories – like "The Martian Way" (November 1952 Galaxy), "Dreaming is a Private Thing" (December 1955 F&SF), "The Dead Past" (April 1956 Astounding) (> Time Viewer) and The Ugly Little Boy (September 1958 Galaxy as "Lastborn"; vt in Nine Tomorrows, coll 1959; 1989 chap dos) – also came from the 1950s; his short work, very frequently reprinted in the 1980s, was initially assembled in a series of impressive volumes, including The Martian Way, and Other Stories (coll 1955), Earth is Room Enough (coll 1957) and Nine Tomorrows: Tales of the Near Future (coll 1959). But then he stopped.

In 1958, there was every sense that the Robot and Foundation sequences were complete, and certainly no sense that they could in any plausible way be related to one another, though Asimov gave no immediate sign of feeling that he had become exhausted. In Who Killed Science Fiction? (anth 1960) edited by Earl Kemp and Nancy Kemp, however, he states that he "had written no science fiction to speak of since Sputnik", and though he specifically blames Sputnik for spoiling the sf arena for him – "it's downright sickening to go back to trying to reach the moon with chemical rockets" – some more personal crisis may have also had an impact. In any case, having abandoned fiction, he plunged first into the writing of a popular-science column in The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, which began in November 1958 and appeared continuously, for 399 issues, until mounting illness prevented his completing the 400th essay late in 1991; it won Asimov a special Hugo in 1963 for "adding science to science fiction". More significantly, he also began to produce an extraordinary stream of nonfiction titles, many of them very substantial, on all aspects of science and literature and – more or less – anything else. By the time of his death in 1992, Asimov's total of published works had long passed the 400 mark, even though much of this output [see Checklist below] consisted of formulaic anthologies, usually in association with Martin H Greenberg.

We make no attempt to list the totality of Asimov's enormous nonfiction output; however, of the hundreds of titles published since the much revised Biochemistry and Human Metabolism (1952) with Burnham Walker and William C Boyd, more than half are likely to be of interest to sf readers for their lucid and comprehensive popularizations of all forms of science. Only a Trillion (coll 1957) contains three Satires. Asimov's Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction science columns have been regularly assembled, from Fact and Fancy (coll 1962) onward, for many volumes. His later non-popular-science titles of particular sf interest include: Isaac Asimov on Science Fiction (coll 1981), Futuredays: A 19th-Century Vision of the Year 2000 (1986), How to Enjoy Writing: A Book of Aid and Comfort (1987) with Janet Asimov and Asimov's Galaxy: Reflections on Science Fiction (coll 1989).

During the years from 1958 to about 1980, little sf appeared, and what did varied widely in quality. A film tie, Fantastic Voyage (1966) – which much later was not so much sequeled as recast in Fantastic Voyage II: Destination Brain (1987) – did his name no good despite strenuous efforts to rationalize the impossible science of Miniaturization; but The Gods Themselves (March/April-May-June 1972 Galaxy; 1972), which was only the second genuine singleton of his career and which won both Hugo and Nebula awards, proved to be his finest single creation, a complex tale involving potentially catastrophic energy transfers between alternate universes (> Parallel Worlds) and – rarely for him – intriguing alien beings (they are considerably more interesting than the humans in the cast). Two collections followed, Buy Jupiter, and Other Stories (coll 1975) – which incorporated Have You Seen These (coll 1974 chap) – and the more sustained The Bicentennial Man (coll 1976), though both contained desultory fillers; but the title story of the more sustained second volume, "The Bicentennial Man" (in Stellar #2, coll 1976, ed Judy-Lynn del Rey) was his finest single Robot tale and won both a Hugo and a Nebula. His presence in the sf world may have been intermittent, but his reputation continued to grow, and in spring 1977 he was involved in founding the first successful new US sf magazine since 1950, Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine (now Asimov's Science Fiction), which soon became – and has long remained – one of the two or three dominant journals in the field.

In the 1980s, to the relief of his very numerous readers and to the trepidation of critics, he returned to the sf field as a fully active writer. Never in fact hugely prolific as an author of fiction, Asimov began at this time to produce large novels at intervals of a year or less, most of them comprising an ambitious attempt to amalgamate the Robot and Foundation sequences into one overarching series, a task not made easier by the total absence of robots from the Galactic Empire. The bridging premise is simple: the Galactic Empire (and Hari Seldon's own career) are the consequences of a robot plot – based on their now enormously sophisticated reading of the Three Laws of Robotics, by which they argue that the First Law implies an overriding Zeroth Law that requires robots to protect the human race as a whole – to ensure the survival of humanity among the stars. In terms of internal chronology, the new Robot/Foundation series comprises The Robots of Dawn (1983), Robots and Empire (1985), Prelude to Foundation (1988), Forward the Foundation (coll of linked stories 1993), Foundation's Edge (1982), which won a Hugo, and Foundation and Earth (1986). Forward the Foundation, Asimov's last completed fiction, completes the exploration of the pre-Foundation lifetime of Hari Seldon which had begun – perhaps to the detriment of his mythic status – in Prelude to Foundation. Each volume was longer than anything Asimov had ever written before and sold enormously well, but disappointed some readers because of the undue relaxedness of the new style, the ponderousness of the action, his by-now obsessive resource to logorrheic talking-head protagonists, and the memorial sense that was given off by the entire enterprise. Meanwhile, earlier material was assiduously intermixed with the new [see Checklist for the complex publication history for the Robot sequence], though Robot Dreams (coll 1986) and Robot Visions (coll 1990), both edited anonymously by Martin H Greenberg, while re-sorting much old material, did contain new short stories; and The Positronic Man (in Stellar Science Fiction Stories, anth 1976, ed Judy-Lynn del Rey as "The Bicentennial Man"; exp 1992) with Robert Silverberg reworked a relatively late robot story.

With Janet Asimov (whom see for titles) Asimov began a new robot series, the Norby books for children. Further singletons arrived, including Azazel (coll of linked stories 1988), Nemesis (1989) and Child of Time (September 1958 Galaxy as "Lastborn" by Asimov alone; vt "The Ugly Little Boy" in Nine Tomorrows, coll 1959; exp 1991; vt The Ugly Little Boy 1992) with Robert Silverberg. New stories had been assembled in The Winds of Change (coll 1983), and the entire career was variously memorialized in The Asimov Chronicles: Fifty Years of Isaac Asimov (coll 1989) [for various vts see Checklist] edited by Martin H Greenberg, and in The Complete Stories, Volume One (omni 1990), comprising the contents of Earth is Room Enough, Nine Tomorrows and Nightfall, and The Complete Stories, Volume Two (coll 1992), assembling work from 1941 through 1976. Over and above the continuing cascade of anthologies during this final decade, Isaac Asimov's Robot City, a series of Ties by various writers, began to appear. During the last two decades of his life, Asimov's name seemed ubiquitous; it remained the case, however, that for younger generations it had become hard to see the forest for the trees, and the proliferation of assemblies and reassemblies, mostly of early work, did not help to clear the vision; nor did his last collections – Gold: The Final Science Fiction Collection (coll 1995) and Magic: The Final Fantasy Collection (coll 1996) – do much for his reputation – though the lead story "Gold" (September 1991 Analog) had won a Hugo. New readers' best course might well be to stick to the Robots and the Foundation, to The Gods Themselves, and to The Asimov Chronicles. There they would hear the clear unerring voice of a man speaking reason, uttering tales about how to solve the true world. For 50 years it was Asimov's almost impersonal tone of address that all the other voices of sf obeyed, or shifted from – sometimes with an eloquence he could not himself have achieved; in this backdoor fashion he did, in the end, compete successfully with Robert A Heinlein. It may indeed be said that Asimov lacked poetry (his own poems were witty but dry); but for five decades his was the voice that most sounded like sf. It was the default voice of sf. [JC/MJE]

see also: Advertising; Anthologies; Apes as Human; Arts; Asteroids; Biology; Children in SF; Cities; Clichés; Club Story; Colonization of Other Worlds; Conceptual Breakthrough; Crime and Punishment; Cybernetics; Devolution; Dimensions; Ditmar Award; Elements; End of Time; Entropy; Fantasy; Futures Studies; Futurology; Gaia; Galaxy Science Fiction; History of SF; Invention; Jonbar Point; Jupiter; Juvenile Series; Lie Detectors; Longevity (in Writers and Publications); Media Landscape; Memory Edit; Mercury; Omega Point; Physics; Politics; Power Sources; Psionics; Pseudoscience; Publishing; Radio; Rays; Religion; Rimworld; Ruins and Futurity; SF Magazines; SF Music; Scientists; Seiun Award; Series; Sex; Shakespeare; Shared Worlds; Skylark Award; Sociology; Spy-Rays; Stars; Technology; Telekinesis; Timeslip; Transportation; Ultrawave; Under the Sea; Utopias; Venus; Villains; Zoo.

Isaac Asimov

born Petrovichi, USSR: 2 January 1920

died New York: 6 April 1992

works

series

Galactic Empire

Robot/Foundation

Robot

  • I, Robot (New York: Gnome Press, 1950) [coll of linked stories: Robot: hb/Edd Cartier]
    • I, Robot (London: Digit, 1958) [coll of linked stories: two stories cut and author's forename spelt "Issac" on cover: Robot: pb/]
    • I, Robot: The Illustrated Screenplay (New York: Warner Books/Aspect, 1994) with Harlan Ellison [screenplay version of the above: pb/Mark Zug]
  • The Caves of Steel (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1954) [first appeared October-December 1953 Galaxy: Robot: hb/Ruth Ray]
  • The Naked Sun (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1957) [first appeared October-December 1956 Astounding: Robot: hb/Ruth Ray]
    • The Robot Novels (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1972) [omni of the above plus The Caves of Steel: Robot: hb/Carl T Herrman]
  • The Rest of the Robots (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1964) [coll: Robot: hb/]
  • The Complete Robot (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1982) [coll: Robot: hb/]
    • The Robot Collection (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1983) [omni of The Robot Novels and The Complete Robot: Robot: hb/]
  • Robot Dreams (New York: Byron Preiss, 1986) [coll: edited anonymously by Martin H Greenberg: includes non-robot stories: Robot: hb/Ralph McQuarrie]
  • Robot Visions (New York: Byron Preiss, 1990) [coll: Robot: hb/Ralph McQuarrie]

Foundation

Robot/Foundation

  • Foundation's Edge (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1982) [Robot/Foundation: hb/Joe Caroff]
  • The Robots of Dawn (Huntington Woods, Maryland: Phantasia Press, 1983) [Robot/Foundation: hb/Barclay Shaw]
    • The Robot Novels (New York: Ballantine, 1988) [omni of the above plus The Caves of Steel and The Naked Sun, which had been assembled in the 1971 omni also entitled The Robot Novels: Robot/Foundation: pb/]
      • The Robot Trilogy (New York: Ballantine Books/Del Rey, 1989) [omni: vt of the above: Robot/Foundation: pb/]
        • Robots and Murder (New York: Science Fiction Book Club, 1999) [omni: vt of the above: Robot/Foundation: pb/]
  • Robots and Empire (West Bloomsfield, Michigan: Phantasia Press, 1985) [Robot/Foundation: hb/Paul Lehr]
  • Foundation and Earth (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1986) [Robot/Foundation: hb/Alan Wallerstein]
  • Prelude to Foundation (New York: Doubleday, 1988) [Robot/Foundation: hb/Boris Vallejo]
  • Forward the Foundation (New York: Doubleday, 1993) [coll of linked stories: Robot/Foundation: hb/Bob Larkin]

Lucky Starr

Opus

  • Opus 100 (Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin, 1969) [coll: Opus: hb/]
  • Opus 200 (Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin, 1979) [coll: Opus: hb/]
  • Opus 300 (Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin, 1984) [coll: Opus: hb/]

Black Widowers

Norby Chronicles

individual titles

collections and stories

nonfiction (highly selected)

autobiography

works as editor

anthology series

Hugo Winners

See also Hugo Anthologies.

The Great SF Stories

Nineteenth Century

Science Fiction Shorts

  • After the End (Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Raintree Publishers, 1982) with Martin H Greenberg and Charles G Waugh [anth: chap: Science Fiction Shorts: hb/]
  • Earth Invaded (Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Raintree Publishers, 1982) with Martin H Greenberg and Charles G Waugh [anth: chap: Science Fiction Shorts: hb/]
  • Mad Scientists (Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Raintree Publishers, 1982) with Martin H Greenberg and Charles G Waugh [anth: chap: Science Fiction Shorts: hb/]
  • Mutants (Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Raintree Publishers, 1982) with Martin H Greenberg and Charles G Waugh [anth: chap: Science Fiction Shorts: hb/]
  • Thinking Machines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Raintree Publishers, 1982) with Martin H Greenberg and Charles G Waugh [anth: chap: Science Fiction Shorts: hb/]
  • Tomorrow's TV (Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Raintree Publishers, 1982) with Martin H Greenberg and Charles G Waugh [anth: chap: Science Fiction Shorts: hb/]
  • Travels through Time (Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Raintree Publishers, 1982) with Martin H Greenberg and Charles G Waugh [anth: chap: Science Fiction Shorts: hb/]
  • Wild Inventions (Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Raintree Publishers, 1982) with Martin H Greenberg and Charles G Waugh [anth: chap: Science Fiction Shorts: hb/]

Magical Worlds of Fantasy

Wonderful Worlds of Science Fiction

Young . . .

Children of the Future

  • Children of the Future (Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Raintree Publishing, 1984) with Martin H Greenberg and Charles G Waugh [anth: chap: Children of the Future: hb/]
  • Bug Awful (Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Raintree Publishing, 1984) with Martin H Greenberg and Charles G Waugh [anth: chap: Children of the Future: hb/William Ersland]
  • Time Warps (Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Raintree Publishing, 1984) with Martin H Greenberg and Charles G Waugh [anth: chap: Children of the Future: hb/Richard Nass and Rhonda Nass]
  • The Immortals (Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Raintree Publishing, 1984) with Martin H Greenberg and Charles G Waugh [anth: chap: Children of the Future: hb/Joel Naprstek]

Mammoth books

non-series anthologies

works as editor: nonfiction

about the author

links

Previous versions of this entry

Website design and build: STEEL

Site ©2011 Gollancz, SFE content ©2011 SFE Ltd.