(1880-1966) US writer, physician and psychiatrist, deeply involved in the last capacity in World War One and its consequences, his work focusing on shell shock; he was one of relatively few American sf writers to have anything like the direct experience of War That Will End War that marked so many British authors, a fact that may help explain his abiding cultural pessimism (> Optimism and Pessimism), often expressed in stories where a thin, almost literal veneer of civilization is peeled off to reveal the excrescence within (> Horror in SF). As a psychiatrist, he remained professionally active in Louisiana until 1928, and returned to the US Medical Corps during World War Two; this may be thought of as his central career.
As a writer, he published occasionally in amateur journals from an early age, his first published story being "Aunt Martha" (1895 Bath Weekly) as by Monk Smith, and in his prolific years as an sf author – beginning with "The Revolt of the Pedestrians" for Amazing in February 1928 – he may have drawn upon a supply of unpublished material. The stories of Keller's early prime – with their heavily foregrounded concepts and Inventions and with their endemic indifference to plausible narrative follow-through – made him an ideal writer for Hugo Gernsback, who published most of his output during these years, as well as his first book, The Thought Projector (1929 chap), in the Science Fiction Series of pamphlets. "The Revolt of the Pedestrians" may be the most remarkable of these, though certainly one of the strangest. It is one of the relatively few sf tales before around 1970 to treat the hypertrophy of automobile culture in the twentieth century as Dystopian (> Prediction; Transportation); after centuries, "automobilists" have become almost organically tied to their Pollution-emitting cars, have lost the use of their legs, and have made pedestrianism a fatal offence. After the leader of a band of pedestrians turns off all electricity, legless automobilists die helplessly in their millions; the description of the death of twenty million New Yorkers attempting to flee Manhattan is extremely vivid (> New York). In the end, two elite pedestrians (> Adam and Eve) meet and prepare to breed, far from any despicable City (> Survivalist Fiction).
Similarly, Keller's first novel, The Human Termites: A 1929 Science Fiction Extravaganza (September-November 1929 Wonder Stories as "The Human Termites"; 1979 chap), begins as a relatively calm-minded development of the speculative element in La Vie des termites (1926; trans Alfred Sutro as The Life of the White Ant 1927) by Maurice Maeterlinck [see The Encyclopedia of Fantasy under links below], but soon leaves behind the commonplace supposition of a termite Hive Mind, moving into an almost delirious account in which both termites and humans are seen to be governed by totalitarian central intelligences. The novel's exorbitance caused considerable stir in 1929 Fandom, but in retrospect can be understood as comprising – at least in part – a Dystopian extrapolation of the horrors (> Horror in SF) of mass combat in World War One; the introduction to the 1979 book edition, by Patrick H Adkins [see The Encyclopedia of Fantasy under links below], is illuminating. In the book-length "The Conquerors" (December 1929-January 1930 Wonder Stories), a dwarf race, separated Underground from human stock for millennia (> Evolution), conquers part of America; eventually, the race decides to colonize Venus. In the sequel, "The Evening Star" (April-May 1930 Wonder Stories), Venus turns out to be dominated by radiant human Masters, and the Utopia they inhabit is invulnerable to the tiny invaders, who are now suffering a very sudden Devolution. In "The Metal Doom" (May-July 1932 Amazing), advanced civilization ends when all metal begins to rust. Stories by Keller of this sort, almost all of which start strongly but dwindle into inconsequence, appeared widely in the Pulp magazines of the period.
Typical of his corrosive attitude toward both science and civilization, and justly criticized for their anti-feminist, racist tendencies (> Feminism; Race in SF), the Taine of San Francisco sequence – individual stories published between 1928 and 1947; except for Wolf Hollow Bubbles: A Taine of San Francisco Story (1934 chap), none have been collected – comprises tales that generally conceal, rather than expose, the truth behind things (> Horror in SF). The sexual sadism of a Taine story like "The Feminine Metamorphosis" (August 1929 Wonder Stories) both repels and confuses with its punitive rendering of female-to-male sex change (> Transgender SF), in which ruthless women inject extracts from the severed genitals of Chinese men, which transforms them into male entrepreneurs until syphilis kills them off. Keller had only months before published the ten separate volumes of nonfiction texts about sexual matters making up the Charles Atlas Body Building Course sequence [for titles see Checklist], where his views are mostly humane and moderately put; he later (1933-1938) edited the journal Sexology. But his sf continued to expose his harsher side: for instance, in "Life Everlasting" (July-August 1934 Amazing), which appears in Life Everlasting and Other Tales of Science, Fantasy and Horror (coll 1947), the human race must choose between a sane and sanitary Immortality and fertility; and chooses the latter. The second (and considerably longer) title in The Solitary Hunters; and The Abyss (coll 1948) again demonstrates, by detailing the terrible consequences of any removal of human repressions, Keller's sense of the fragility of the psychic order; in the second title, Drugs injected into chewing gum cause humans to degenerate (> Decadence; Devolution).
Over all, at least fifty sf stories, some of considerable length, were published by 1935, after which point his production became erratic, and he focused more on fantasy and horror, much of which is superior to his sf, though "The Red Death" (July 1941 Cosmic Stories) is a strong Disaster novelette, in which a plague wipes out New York and perhaps the rest of the world; the Illustration accompanying the tale shows a vast traffic jam – rarely if ever depicted in Genre SF (> Prediction) before the end of the 1960s – but in this case is intended solely to dramatize the panicked evacuation of Manhattan. A more typical later tale like The Thing in the Cellar (March 1932 Weird Tales; 1940 chap), for instance, works with power and concision as a hydraulic metaphor (in the Freudian manner) of the relationship between the upstairs daylight of consciousness and the blind tide of unconsciousness beneath our floors (> Horror in SF). But work of this sort did not sustain his popularity, though he became popular in France, publishing some individual tales there, and The Sign of the Burning Hart: A Tale of Acradia (coll of linked stories 1938; exp vt [with "Arcadia" spelled correctly] The Sign of the Burning Hart: A Tale of Arcadia 1948), which is Utopian fantasy. In America he fell out of wide public notice with the onset of the Golden Age of SF, whose optimism about the workability of the Universe he clearly did not share, as exemplified in The Devil and the Doctor (1940), where Satan is a Hero-figure (one of the first novels by a recognized author of Pulp sf and fantasy to be released by a trade publisher). Keller did remain active in Fandom, however, and – it is rumoured – wrote a large number of stories, some of which appeared in the 1940s; others were published in the 1970s in response to the continuing appeal of his apparently primitive fiction, much of which was assembled, late in life, in such collections as Tales from Underwood (coll 1952), an ample volume which assembles Keller's own choice of his best work, The Folsom Flint and Other Curious Tales (coll 1969) and The Last Magician: Nine Stories from "Weird Tales" (coll 1978 chap).
It is clear enough that Keller's conceptual inventiveness, and his cultural gloom, are worthy more attention than they have received; it is also clear that he fatally scanted the actual craft of writing, and that therefore he is likely never to be fully appreciated. [JC]
see also: Air Wonder Stories; Automation; Biology; Machines; Medicine; Psychology; Robots; Small Presses and Limited Editions; Technology; Transportation.
David Henry Keller, M D
born Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: 23 December 1880
died Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania: 13 July 1966
collections and stories
- The Thought Projector (New York: Stellar Publishing, 1929) [story: chap: in the publisher's Science Fiction Series: illus/Frank R Paul: pb/nonpictorial]
- Wolf Hollow Bubbles: A Taine of San Francisco Story (Jamaica, New York: The ARRA Printers, 1934) [story: chap: Taine of San Francisco: pb/]
- Men of Avalon (Everett, Pennsylvania: Fantasy Publications, 1935) [story: chap: pb/]
- Waters of Lethe (Great Barrington: Massachusetts: Hayward S Kirby, 1937) [story: chap: pb/]
- The Television Detective (Los Angeles, California: Los Angeles Science Fiction League, 1938) [story: chap: pb/]
- The Sign of the Burning Hart: A Tale of Acradia (Saint-Lô, France: Imprimerie de la Manche, 1938) [coll of linked stories: "Acradia" is as given on title page: pb/nonpictorial]
- The Thing in the Cellar (Millheim, Pennsylvania: Bizarre Series, 1940) [story: chap: first appeared Weird Tales in March 1932: pb/]
- Life Everlasting and Other Tales of Science, Fantasy and Horror (Newark, New Jersey: Avalon Co, 1947) [coll: hb/Russell Swanson]
- The Solitary Hunters; and The Abyss: Two Fantastic Novels (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: New Era Publishers, 1948) [coll: hb/J V Baltadonis]
- The Final War (Portland, Oregon: Perri Press, 1949) [story: chap: pb/]
- Tales from Underwood (New York: Pellegrini and Cudahy, 1952) [coll: "Published for Arkham House": hb/Ronald Clyne]
- Figment of a Dream: A New Allegorical Fantasy (Baltimore, Maryland: Mirage Press, 1962) [story: chap: pb/]
- The Folsom Flint and Other Curious Tales (Sauk City, Wisconsin: Arkham House, 1969) [coll: hb/Ronald Clyne]
- The Last Magician: Nine Stories from "Weird Tales" (New Orleans, Louisiana: PDA Enterprises, 1978) [coll: chap: pb/]
- The Rat Racket (no place given: Project Gutenberg, 2008) [story: ebook: first appeared November 1931 Amazing: na/]
- Tiger Cat (no place given: Project Gutenberg, 2010) [story: ebook: first appeared October 1937 Weird Tales: na/]
- The Threat of the Robot and Other Nightmarish Futures (Normal, Illinois: Black Dog Books, 2012) [coll: pb/Tom Roberts]
The Sexual Education Series: Charles Atlas (hb issue may not be labelled as a Charles Atlas production)
- Companionate Marriage, Birth Control, Divorce, Modern Home Life (New York: Roman Publishing Company, 1928) [nonfiction: The Sexual Education Series: Charles Atlas: hb/nonpictorial]
- Diseases and Problems of Old Age (New York: Roman Publishing Company, 1928) [nonfiction: The Sexual Education Series: Charles Atlas: hb/nonpictorial]
- Love, Courtship, Marriage (New York: Roman Publishing Company, 1928) [nonfiction: The Sexual Education Series: Charles Atlas: hb/nonpictorial]
- Mother and Baby (New York: Roman Publishing Company, 1928) [nonfiction: The Sexual Education Series: Charles Atlas: hb/nonpictorial]
- Sex and Family Through the Ages (New York: Roman Publishing Company, 1928) [nonfiction: The Sexual Education Series: Charles Atlas: hb/nonpictorial]
- Sex and Society (New York: Roman Publishing Company, 1928) [nonfiction: The Sexual Education Series: Charles Atlas: hb/nonpictorial]
- Sexual Diseases and Abnormalities of Adult Life (New York: Roman Publishing Company, 1928) [nonfiction: The Sexual Education Series: Charles Atlas: hb/nonpictorial]
- The Sexual Education of the Young Man (New York: Roman Publishing Company, 1928) [nonfiction: The Sexual Education Series: Charles Atlas: hb/nonpictorial]
- The Sexual Education of the Young Woman (New York: Roman Publishing Company, 1928) [nonfiction: The Sexual Education Series: Charles Atlas: hb/nonpictorial]
- The Sexual Life of Men and Women after Forty (New York: Roman Publishing Company, 1928) [nonfiction: The Sexual Education Series: Charles Atlas: hb/nonpictorial]
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